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History of Early Church & Rise of Roman Catholics

History of the First Church in Jerusalem

After Jesus ascended to heaven, Christianity emerged as a sect of Judaism. The first Christians were Jews called followers of “the Way” (ἡ ὁδός). The church was loosely organized. Eventually, it divided into two prominent “catholic” (meaning universal) factions in 451 and 1054 A.D.

The Five Sees: Churches established by the apostolic fathers

FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

First Christian church

Naturally, the first church is the “First Church of Jerusalem.” Leaders were James, the brother of Jesus, Peter, and John the Apostle (Galatians 2:9, Acts 1:13). The rest, like Paul, was on a missionary journey outside Jerusalem. (Acts 15)

RENAMING JERUSALEM: Around 135 A.D., Emperor Hadrian, enraged by Jewish resistance, renamed Judea to Syria Palaestina (after the enemies of the Jews, the Syrians, and Philistines) and banished all Jews from the region. The Christian church of Jerusalem was forever lost. [Palestine]

First Bishop of Jerusalem

Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa I tried to kill him. According to Eusebius, Peter asked James the Just (son of Zebedee, brother of Apostle John) to be the leader in Jerusalem, hence the first bishop. Clement of Alexandria (150–215) also referred to James as the first Bishop of Jerusalem.

Second Bishop of Jerusalem

When James died in 69 A.D., historian Eusebius said, “Simeon of Jerusalem” (Symeon the Zealot) was chosen as successor (second Bishop) shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem.

Antioch, the Cradle of Christianity

After Stephen’s stoning in 36 A.D., Some followers of “the Way” went to Phoenicia and the Greek cities of Cyprus and Antioch, spreading the word only among Jews.

Those who went to Antioch shared the Gospel in Greek. Barnabas sent to organize a new church in Antioch (with Saul) in 42 A.D. (Acts 11:19-26)

It was in Antioch that they were called Christians for the first time. The Holy Spirit called Paul and Barnabas to take the gospel beyond, making Antioch the early “missionary sending” church (Acts 13:2–3). The gentile converts spoke Greek critically in expanding the gospel.

The church Pillars: The first council of Jerusalem

In 50 A.D., Barnabas and Paul returned to Jerusalem to meet with James, Peter, and John (the council of Jerusalem). It confirmed the legitimacy of Barnabas and Paul’s mission to the Gentiles.

First 100 Years, the five ‘Apostolic See’

The ‘Apostolic See’ is the church established by the apostles or their close associates. At least 25 churches were established during the apostolic age. Author Tertullian wrote in 180 A.D. four—Corinth, Philippi, Ephesus, and Rome (Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 A.D.).

While many of these figures were associated with what would later become the Roman Catholic Church, it’s anachronistic to categorize them as “Roman Catholics” since the modern distinction between Catholicism and other Christian traditions hadn’t fully emerged at that time.

The early church fathers

The earliest Christian manuscripts outside the Holy Bible were written by early church fathers who played pivotal roles in founding and expanding churches in the century following Christ’s death. Most of these were preserved by the Roman Catholic church, which do not imply they were of the Roman Catholic order.

Katholikos and Roman Catholics

Contrary to common belief, these early fathers were Catholics (Katholikos), which refers to Christendom, and not exclusively Roman Catholics since they had not fully evolved during that time.

Rather, Katholikos (Catholics or universal) diversified into branches such as (1) Eastern Orthodoxy, (2) Oriental Orthodoxy, and (3) Roman Catholicism. Their contributions were foundational to the evolution of Christian doctrine, liturgy, and organizational structure, shaping subsequent theological traditions.

From the early apostolic churches came three divisions of Christianity, all claiming roots in the apostles:

1. Oriental Orthodox Church (60 Million members today)
2. Eastern Orthodox Church (220 Million members today)
3. Roman Catholic Church (1.2 Billion members today)
* Protestantism was a breakaway from Rome with 1 billion members today.

List of early Christian centers during the apostolic years

Alexandria (Eygpt)
Antioch (Turkey)
Arabian Peninsula
Armenia
Asia Minor
Caesarea
Carthage (Tunisia)
Corinth (Greece)
Cyprus
Ephesus (Turkey)
Ethiopia
Georgia (Iberia)
Italy (Outside Rome)
Jerusalem
Libya
Mesopotamia (Edessa)
Nubia
Persia and Central Asia
Philippi (Greece)
Rome (Roman Catholicism)
Southern Gaul
Thessaloniki (Greece)
Thrace

Basic history of Israel.

Tens of thousands of Coptic Christians held an overnight vigil in Cairo to mourn Pope Shenouda III.

Beginnings of Roman Catholicism

Christianity’s presence in Rome by 40 A.D. was evident. Like most Christians in the ancient world, the Roman Christians were small Jewish and gentile groups that began in house churches. [Roots of Papacy of Rome]

Paul and Peter in Rome

Irenaeus of Lyons said Paul and Peter founded the Church in Rome. They appointed Linus (67 A.D.) as its first bishop. Paul was sent to Rome under house arrest. From there, he trained church leaders (Acts 25:8-12). Tradition holds Paul beheaded in Rome as well as Peter, martyred in the city.

Early churches (Orthodox and Roman Churches) were generally referred to as “Catholics.” Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch (108-149 A.D.), first used “katholikos” to describe the “universal church.” Hence, to say, “Catholic” includes the different branches of Christianity. One of them is Roman Catholicism.

Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian church organization today, with 1.2 Billion members.

Linus, the first Pope of Rome

Only the Roman Catholics (RC) affirm Apostle Peter as the first Bishop of Rome (Petrine theory). RC also misinterprets Matthew 15:18 to elevate Peter as vicar of Christ, making the Pope vicar of Christ as well—with no solid Biblical basis.

The Petrine Theory: A Roman Catholic doctrine on papal primacy, resting on Christ’s bestowing the “keys of the Kingdom” on Peter. They misinterpreted Matthew 15:18 to support their political supremacy. [Read commentary]

Irenaeus of Lyon

The earliest witness that Linus was the first bishop (Catholics call him pope) was Greek Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon (130–202 A.D.). He wrote in 180 A.D. the following:

"The blessed apostles (Paul and Peter)... committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate (Bishop); succeeded by Anacletus, third place from the apostles, Clement (35-134 A.D.) allotted the bishopric." [Ireneus: Against Heresies 3; Read commentary]

Tertullian, Eusebius, Jerome, Liberian Catalogue, Liber Pontificalis, Apostolic Constitution affirms Linus as first Bishop of Rome

  • From the early third century, Tertullian appears to say Clement was the first bishop—appointed by Peter himself. [Tertullian: Prescription of the Heretics 32]
  • Eusebius appears to agree that Linus was the first bishop of Rome after the martyrdom of Peter and Paul. [Eusebius: Church History, 4, 9]
  • Jerome described Linus as “the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church” [Chronicon
  • John Chrysostom wrote that “this Linus, some say, was the second bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter.” [Chrysostom]
  • The Liberian Catalogue described Peter as the first bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office. [Chrnography]
  • The Liber Pontificalis [8] also enumerated Linus as the second bishop of Rome after Peter by saying Apostle Peter consecrated two bishops, Linus and Anacletus. Clement I entrusted the universal Church whom he appointed as his successor.
  • The Apostolic Constitutions note that Linus was the first bishop of Rome and was succeeded by Clement I, whom Peter the Apostle ordained and consecrated. [Apostolic Constitution]

The early church fathers were called “Saints.” This was a tradition of both the Orthodox and Roman churches. Likewise, early church fathers were called priests, which doesn’t automatically mean they were “Roman Catholic priests.” Both branches of Christianity practice canonization.

Important periods leading to the rise of Roman Catholicism

Rome as the ‘Apostolic See’ elevated to jurisdictional prominence because of its political importance amidst the dying Roman Empire. The Council of Constantinople held a political capital. [Jurisdictional authority]

As a result, Roman Catholicism grew in power and political dominance over its equal Bishoprics, whose churches were also established by the Apostles by tradition.

  • 313 Edict of Milan: Emperor Constantine, upon his conversion, lifted the ban on Christianity in the Roman Empire.
  • 325 Council of Nicaea: First ecumenical Council, Constantine tried to unify Christianity and resolve issues that divided the church by establishing the Nicene Creed, convened by himself.
  • 380 Edict of Thessalonica: Christianity declared the state religion of the Roman Empire.
  • 381 Council of Constantinople: (Second Ecumenical Council)
  • 392 Roman Catholicism: Declared official religion in Rome
  • 395 Collapse of the Roman Empire: Theodosius I died, dividing it into east and western empires.
  • 431 Council of Ephesus: Roman Catholicism was recognized as the “pentarchy” by the Council.
  • 451 Council of Chalcedon: 520 Bishops around the world attended the council to settle a unified doctrine. However, the Oriental Orthodox Catholic Church and Western Roman Catholic Church split. Hence, the First Schism.
  • 553 Council of Constantinople II
  • 680 Council of Constantinople III
  • 787 Council of Nicaea II
  • 1054 The Great Schism: Split between Eastern Catholics (Orthodox) and Western Catholics (Roman)

The Great Schism of 1054 A.D.

The great schism was the formal split between Eastern Catholics (Greek Orthodox) and Western Catholics (Roman Catholics). The word “Catholic” means universal. Although they have similarities, such as canonization, rituals, and relics, they differ in principle.

On July 16, 1054, the Patriarch of Constantinople’s ex-communication (by Rome) became the breaking point of tension between the church based in Rome and the Byzantine church based in Constantinople.

The Roman Catholic church became the “New Roman Empire”

The Roman Empire (Western) fell in 476, and by 800 A.D., Pope Leo III (crowned Charlemagne) became the “Holy Roman Emperor.” The Roman Catholic Church replaced the Roman identity, which still exists through its remaining vestige—the Byzantine Empire located in Constantinople.

The Eastern Orthodox church in Constantinople* refused the need for two emperors to sit under the Roman Empire (the Roman Empire was divided into the Byzantine Eastern Empire or Rome’s Western Empire, which had already collapsed).

The split gave way to the rise of Catholicism.

Constantinople was the seat of the Byzantine Empire. It was the Greek city of Byzantium. When the capital of the Roman Empire moved to Byzantium in 330 A.D., it became known as Nova Roma (New Rome) or ‘Eastern Rome.’ From Byzantium, it was renamed Constantinople after its first Emperor, Constantine I.

The Byzantine Empire still existed with its own patriarch. Hence, the relationship turned sour because the Western Roman church positioned itself above the other.

  • The Orthodox Church saw Rome veering away from apostolic teachings. The Pope eventually took the Roman title Pontificus Maximus, the most important position in the ancient Roman pagan religion.
  • To add to the rift, the century-long Byzantine iconoclasm (destruction of religious icons and images) widened the gap between them.
  • Language also became a barrier. Greek Orthodox in Constantinople found it difficult to read Latin, and Roman Catholics in Rome found it difficult to read Greek.
  • As a result, the European Christian churches were divided into two major branches: the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Roman Catholic Church, known as the “Great Schism.”

The Pope took the title Pontificus Maximus, the most important position in ancient Roman pagan religion.

SHORT PROTESTANT HISTORY.

edict of thessalonica
Saint Ambrose forced Emperor Theodosius I to make penance for the Thessaloniki massacre. After he died, Rome collapsed, and the Holy Church became the Neo-Roman Empire.

The collapse of the Roman Empire in 395 A.D. gave way to the Rise of ‘Roman Catholicism,’ which replaced it as a world power.

In 380 A.D., Roman Emperors Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II declared “Nicene Christianity” the official state religion of the Roman Empire—known as the Edict of Thessalonica. The Pope, or “Bishop of Rome,” operated as the Roman Catholic Church’s head.

The collapse of the Roman Empire in the fourth century

As the empire disintegrated, the papacy took the title “Pontifex Maximus” (supreme priest). Such title belonged to the Emperors of Rome. The Emperor was the supreme religious head of the College of Pontiff. The Pope has taken that place.

The papacy became the “New Emperor of Rome.” Hence, Roman Catholicism became the “New Roman Empire” with great power and influence.

papacy took the title “Pontifex Maximus,” traditionally belonged to the Emperor.

BIBLE TRANSLATION WE CAN TRUST.

Catholic Bible: The Latin Vulgate in 405 A.D.

The Gospel was preached orally and written in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek languages. The Roman Catholic Vulgate came 300 years later.

In 382, Pope Damasus commissioned Jerome to produce a Latin version of the Bible from the various translations used. The Latin Vulgate was completed in 405 A.D., recognized as the official Roman Catholic Bible.

Protestant Bible: King James Version in 1611

William Tyndale wrote the first English Bible. Like Jerome, he used Hebrew, Greek texts, and other manuscripts older than the Vulgate.

In 1611, The King James Bible (KJV) was published as the Protestant’s own Bible. The Tyndale and KJV are NOT translations of the Catholic’s Latin Vulgate. [Bible translation to trust]

Tyndale & KJV are NOT translations of the Catholic’s Latin Vulgate.

Six branches of Christianity today

Three recognized divisions of Christianity stemmed from “Jewish-Christians” of the first church in Jerusalem (Book of Acts). Protestantism (Reformation in Europe) could be considered the fourth branch of Christianity.

The protestant reformation had its own sense of schism that gave birth to various protestant denominations.

After the great awakenings in the late 1800s to early 1900s, non-denominational churches established themselves everywhere. Today, there are at least six different kinds of mainstream Christian denominations.

  1. Orthodox Catholics (Eastern Orthodox, Europe)
  2. Roman Catholicism (Western Orthodox, Vatican)
  3. Protestantism (Germany, Europe)
  4. Reformed Protestant (Europe)
  5. Reformed Tradition (Presbyterians, “Weak Calvinists”)
  6. Non-denominational (Evangelicals, Holy Spirit movement)

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