Short Protestant & Post-Millennial Church History from 1517 to present
Part 1: Reformation (Protestant Movement)
In the past, anyone who disagreed with the absolute authority of the Pope was called a heretic. When their protest became organized, the two major movements were the Protestant and English Reformation. They caused a significant blow in Roman Papacy.
- Salvation is by faith alone.
- The Pope is not the Vicar of Christ.
- The church is built upon Jesus, not St. Peter.
- The Bible should be read by ordinary people.
Martin Luther, the Father of Reformation
Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses at the door of the church of Wittenberg, Germany, in 1517. It was a “protest” against abuses of “indulgences” by the Catholic Church.
It sparked the Reformation that began in Germany and spread throughout Europe. It became known as Protestant, a slur used by the Vatican to those who opposed them.
Martin Luther, King Henry VIII, and William Tyndale
The complicated influence of Luther to the English throne and King Henry VII’s marriage led to the founding of the Church of England. King Henry was not a fan of Protestantism, and he wanted to retain the seven sacraments of Roman Catholicism.
His main reason for severing with Rome was to be the head of the church of England, so he can do as he can divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Then, he can freely marry Ann Boylen, his second wife, to which both the Pope and Luther objected.
First true Christian Bible translation
After the new Church of England was established, it leaned towards Protestantism. William Tyndale was an English scholar. Erasmus and Luther’s works had a strong influence on Tyndale.
Tyndale translated the first English Bible directly from Hebrew & Greek texts, burdened by the Latin Vulgate’s wrong context.
William Tyndale used other manuscripts older than Jerome’s Vulgate (Roman Catholic Bible). Tyndale’s incomplete Bible is set apart from Jerome’s translation. It was the first “true Christian Bible.”
King Henry was enraged; it undermind the Roman Catholic tradition. Tyndale declared a heretic and burned at the stakes in 1535.
King Henry executed 81 protestant dissenters. His daughter Queen Mary, also a devout Catholic, sent 300 people to “burn at the stake” for their radical support of England’s protestant reformation.
Jerome’s Latin Vulgate and Tyndale’s Translation
- The Latin Vulgate that Jerome translated was corrupted. It was tweaked to support the pagan origin of the Papacy and its authority.
- The Vulgate found its way into other translations, considered the first translation outside the original Hebrew and Greek text.
- Tyndale’s Bible was a fresh translation and completed with the Vulgate. Hence, all of Tyndale’s books burned; only three copies of the 1526 edition survived.
- The likes of Luther, Tyndale never referred to themselves as “Protestants.” The word Protestant used by the Vatican as a slur against the Reformed Christians who obeyed Christ’s command to “come out of her, my people.” (Rev. 18:4)
- The keys of “St. Peter,” the catholic mass, the Virgin Mary as Mother of God, and other non-Christian teachings are found in embryonic form in the Latin Vulgate.
The word Protestant used by the Vatican as a slur against the Reformed Christians.
King James Bible to end all translations
The King James Version (KJV), completed in 1611, was the English Bible intended to end all translations and settle incongruence of earlier translations, such as the corrupted Latin Vulgate.
KJV had various sources, mostly coming from the Hebrew and Greek text, including Willliam Tyndale’s first English Bible translation in 1536. Tyndale was burned for translating the Bible.
Since England broke away from the Vatican, the KJV spared from destruction by the Pope. It became the standard Bible of the reformation movement (Protestants as Rome called it).
Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, Queen Elizabeth I and the Puritans counter-reformation
After King Henry VIII died, Edward VI succeeded and ruled for only six years. He was succeeded by Henry’s daughter from her first marriage, Mary I, who reversed the English Reformation back to Catholicism.
Catholic Queen Mary ordered the death of hundreds of Protestants earning the name “Bloody Mary.”
She was succeeded by Queen Elizabeth I in 1558. Elizabeth was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, who restored Protestantism for good in England. She faced the counter-reformation from the Puritans.
English Reformation leading to the “First Awakening”
Protestantism grew in Europe, British missionaries brought it to their colonies such as the Americas by 1650. During this period, Spain also evangelized its territories.
They called the “New Spain” Nueva Filipinas because of their successful colonization of the Philippines. Protestantism flourished in Europe through Queen Elizabeth.
Second and Third Awakening
In the 1800s, the second awakening in America focused on the unchurched, giving birth to various forms of religious movements such as the Mormons, Methodists, Adventists, and Pentecostalism.
Part 2: The end of Protestantism
What can be considered as counter-reformation by the late 1850s to the 1900s is the third awakening. It gave rise to social activism and postmillennial theology that sparked a new worldwide missionary movement.
Modern Church Fathers Moody, Booth, Spurgeon, Taylor
Dwight Moody, William Booth (Salvation Army), Charles Spurgeon, and Hudson Taylor (China Inland Mission) were considered the “new apostles of the new century.”
By the 20th century, American and English missionaries effectively influenced most Asian countries. Roman Catholicism was no longer the dominant force in Judeo-Christianism.
It paved the way for Christian ecumenism and neo-Evangelism. Other movements spread, such as the Pentecostal-Charismatic movements by the mid-1900.
Billy Sunday and Billy Graham
Billy Sunday rose into popularity in the early 1900s. He was an American evangelist whose revivals and sermons reflected the emotional upheavals caused by rural to industrial society in the United States. Afterward, Billy Graham became the face of evangelicalism.
All the while, missionaries from the US continued their expansion in Asian countries like the Philippines. In the 1970s, Christian communities gained a foothold in the Catholic-dominated country.
Far East Broadcasting Company
God planted in the hearts of two young men named Bob Bowman and John Broger a vision for missionary radio that would one day become Far East Broadcasting Company (FEBC). In 1945, FEBC was established with one goal in mind: broadcasting Christ to the world.
3. Post-Millenial Theology
As the Protestant movement slowed down, Charismatic Born-Again preachers sprung from everywhere.
Then came the popularity of the “Pentecostal and Full Gospel movements” in the 1980s. The likes of Jimmy Swaggart and Pat Robertson widely popular because of television.
In the 2000s, “prosperity gospel” was packing churches led by Benny Hinn, Joel Osteen, Kenneth Copeland, and the Hillsongs church.
The unorthodox preaching of Steven Furtick, Joseph Prince, Joyce Meyer, Paula White, and the likes of Beth Moore, and Rick Warren, among others, made popular through social media.
Interestingly, it is also during this period that several pastors have fallen from grace. Each year, the scandal of sexual immortality, financial abuse, and suicide plagued the Christian community.
Rise of the YouTube Superstar Preachers
The introduction of tablets and faster internet connection by 2010 gave rise to “superstar preachers.” Their popularity measured by subscribers, shares, and likes.
Unfortunately, it was also filled with preachers who preach heresy. The best way to describe their theology is called “Moralistic Therapeutic Deism,” first introduced in 2005.
Reformed Protestantism 500 years after the Reformation
According to Tim Challies, the teachings of John Calvin have had a sudden resurgence in the last decade attributed to Paul Washer’s sermon on YouTube. Apparently, the rise of “liberal evangelicalism” purported by “superstar preachers” have diluted Christ’s message.
The interest in “reformed Protestantism” (be it low or high Calvinists) grew rapidly through sermons from Stanley, MacArthur, Sprouls, among others, posted on YouTube.
Important Christian apologists today
Michael L. Brown
William Lane Craig